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Welcome to our Night Vision website!
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If you seek leading-edge solutions for low-light imaging, we can help! We’re pleased to provide products for a variety of night vision applications including: low-light photography, electronic news gathering, perimeter security, thermal imaging and long range surveillance. These products are typically used by personnel involved with special operations, law enforcement, force protection and Homeland Security. In this website, you will also find a number of white papers and tools that can be helpful to support these applications. If you need custom products, please contact us. Our engineering team has a wealth of experience with custom night vision systems for very specific applications.
Quick Access:  Applications  |  Products  |  White Papers  |  Resources  |  Other Links  |  Other Websites
Camcorder Target Resolution Calculator
Determine the optimum camera and lens combination for your application.
Camcorder Selection
Camera Model
Pixel Pitch (µm)
H (µm)
V (µm)

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Number of Pixels
Detector Size (mm)
Field of View
Lens Focal Length mm
Field of View (FOV) (degrees) °
Pixel Field of View (IFOV) (mrad)
Range Parameters
Range to Object Meters
Field of View at Range (meters)
Pixel Field of View at Range (cm)
Detection Range
H-Size of Object Meters
Max Detection Range (2 pixels)
% of display
Range (meters)
% of H display
Max Recognition Range (8 pixels)
% of display
Range (meters)
% of H display
Max Identification Range (13 pixels)% of display
Range (meters)
% of H display
Camcorder Description and Historical Information
This Camcorder Range Calculator enables the user to easily estimate the maximum range from which an object can be detected when using various camcorder platforms. It is important to note that these estimates assume that range performance is based solely on image quality yielding a method of estimation that's simple to implement. The estimates are based solely on the object size, distance, camera objective lens and camera detector parameters. Object brightness, emissivity, atmospheric conditions, reflectivity and other factors are not considered. In this regard, the object size and focal length of the objective lens are variables to be entered by the user. The spreadsheet also provides information as to the angular and spatial field-of-view of different camera systems at a specified range.
The calculations used here are based on the "Johnson Criteria" which were developed many years ago by John Johnson, a scientist at the US Army Night Vision Lab (Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate). Johnson was working to develop methods of predicting target detection, recognition, and identification. He was working with volunteer observers using image intensifier equipment and quantified the volunteer observer's ability to identify scale model targets under various conditions. His experiments produced the first empirical data on perceptual thresholds. The so-called Johnson Criteria have been the basis for many models that predict the performance of sensor systems under different environmental and operational conditions. According to the Johnson Criteria, the minimum resolution (pixels on target) required to achieve a 50% probability that an observer can discriminate an object at a certain range to the specified level are:
  • Detection — an object is present: 2 +1/-0.5 pixels
  • Recognition — the type object can be discerned, a person vs. a car: 8 +1.6/-0.4 pixels
  • Identification — a specific object can be discerned, a woman vs. a man, the specific car: 12.8 +3.2/-2.8 pixels
Intensify Your Camcorder

Transform your Digital Camcorder and capture high resolution images at night and in low-light situations otherwise too dark for standard digital video. With AstroScope, the light amplification is equivalent to the improvement of 8-10 F-stops so that moonlit or starlit scenes are transformed into bright, high resolution images that are easily video recorded.

Both shots were taken using the same camera settings: Shutter Speed: 1/40; No Flash; Lens Aperture: F/5; Focal Length: 52 mm; ISO: 800; Exposure Comp: 0

Learn more!

Featured Whitepaper
The Three Primary Technologies for Night-time Video Surveillance: Master These and You'll Never Be in the Dark

There are lots of challenges in performing video surveillance at night. The optimal solution for a particular application will depend on the requirements for the specific application.

The "best" system design for a specific video surveillance system that includes imaging at night will utilize one of the three primary night vision technologies: low-light imaging, thermal imaging and near-infrared illumination. In this article, these three technologies are explained and the advantages of each reviewed.

We hope this information is helpful. Feel free to email us with comments.

Disclaimer: We have made every attempt to provide accurate information. However, we cannot accept any responsibility for errors or inaccuracies. Should you require assistance, please contact us directly. Thank you.
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White Papers
Digital SLR Cameras - What's New for Surveillance Photography
The Three Primary Technologies for Nighttime Video Surveillance - Master These and You'll Never Be in the Dark
Guidelines for Evaluating Digital Camcorders for Surveillance
Understanding Infrared Camera Thermal Image Quality
Tips on Creating Awesome Night Vision Digital SLR Photos
Knowledge Center AstroScope Night Vision FAQs
Application Gallery Application Training
dSLR Target Resolution Calculator Online Videos
Camcorder Target Resolution Calculator
NEW!  Master Surveillant ORC Training by Team Guardian®
Clandestine Photography:
Basic to Advanced Daytime and Nighttime Manual Surveillance Photography Techniques - For Military Special Operations Forces, Law Enforcement, Intelligence Agencies, and Investigators
by Raymond P. Siljander and Lance W. Juusola
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Sofradir EC Night Vision Imaging
Sofradir EC, Inc. - Night Vision Imaging (formerly Electrophysics Corp.)  
373 US Hwy 46W Fairfield, NJ 07004 USA  |  Phone: 973-882-0211  |  Fax: 973-882-0997  |  info@sofradir-ec.com